This lecture presents an introduction to basic real-time
methods for bipedal humanoid robots. The lecture will contain three
parts: 1) modeling, 2) balance control, 3) walking control.
In the first part the lecture will start with a discussion of modeling issues and highlight the properties of system models of different levels of abstraction.
Based on complete multi-body dynamics models, the problem of humanoid balancing control will be discussed in the second part. Different strategies for either position controlled or force controlled robots will be discussed.
The third part of the lecture will focus on walking control. For this problem the use of different simplified control models will be analyzed.
The lecture will also cover classical ZMP based walking control using pattern generators, but the main focus will be put on gait generation based on a state feedback control approach. Therefore, the capture point will be used as a system coordinate and the walking control problem will be redefined as a control problem for the capture point. It will be shown that the use of the capture point simplifies not only the feedback control problem, but also the motion planning problem.
For the algorithms presented in this talk, practical implementations on the humanoid robot TORO will be shown.